Problems are exacerbated because of the bad habits that damage the mechanism of voice production such as sitting in a bad position or tilting your neck while holding a telephone with your shoulder, and often a subconscious effort to overcome these impediments generates additional voice abuse, which causes vocal fatigue, hoarseness, and even vocal nodules. Identifying and elimination of causal factors usually results in disappearance of the nodules and improved voice.
Below are listed some of the causes of voice disorders:
Exposure to the environmental irritators is a well known cause of vocal dysfunction. Smoke, dehydration, pollution and Allergies pathogens can create hoarseness, frequent throat clearing and weak voice. These problems can be eliminated by changing the environment, medication, or simply breathing through the nose rather than through the mouth because the nose warms up, moistens and filters the incoming air.
The effect of cigarette smoke on the vocal cords has been known for years. Smoking not only causes chronic irritation, but results in microscopic changes in the epithelium of the vocal cords. Epithelial cells change and become more and more diverse than a regular epithelium. They begin to grow quickly and accumulate in the surrounding tissue. Such drastic change is called laryngeal cancer.
Various food and medications can also affect the voice. Some medications such as androgenic (male hormone) may even permanently damage your voice. Similar problems can occur with use of anabolic steroids (also male hormones) taken by body builders. Antihistamines cause dryness in the throat, resulting in clearing of the throat and irritation, and often exacerbate hoarseness. Aspirin contributes to hemorrhages of the vocal cords. Many neurological, psychological and respiratory medications cause tremor that can be heard in the voice. Also, some foods may be responsible for voice problems in people with “normal” vocal cords. Casein, a protein found in milk, is particularly unpleasant for some people because it strengthens and thickens the mucus secretion.
Respiratory problems are especially problematic for singers and other people who use their voice professionally and people who play wind instruments, but they can also cause voice problems for anyone. Limited lung disease may damage the support by reducing lung volume and effectiveness of respiration. Even lung diseases that are severe can cause damage to the support, resulting in increased muscle tension of neck and tongue. Such a scenario may occur in
Hormonal problems also have an impact on voice, primarily by causing fluid accumulation in the upper layer of the lamina propria and altering the vibration characteristics. The use of some drugs with hormonal activity also can permanently damage your voice (this is particularly true for substances that contain androgens).
When the basic cause of vocal dysfunction is anxiety, the physician can help a lot by convincing the patient that no organic (physical) difficulties are present and indicate a diagnosis of anxiety reaction.
Patients should be taught that voice problems are common with anxiety and agitation and such identifying the anxiety as a basic problem often allows a disorder to be detected. Sedatives are rarely required because they may interfere with fine motor control, which negatively affects the voice. Some agents (eg beta blockers) have impact on cardiovascular system and cause complications such as hipotonus, depression, agranulocytosis, laryngospasm and bronchospasm.