Laryngotracheobronchitis is an acute nonspecific inflammation of the mucous membrane of the larynx, trachea and bronchi characterized by abundant secretion of thick mucus, choking, coughing, cyanosis and high temperature.
The most affected groups are children under four years. The disease is the result of a viral infection accompanied by a mixed bacterial infection (Strept, pneumo and staphylococci). It appears epidemically or sporadically.
Strong swelling of the mucous membrane is an important factor in the disease. If the tracheal lumen is 6 mm, and if the swelling of the mucous membrane is only 2 mm, then the diameter of tracheal lumen will be reduced to only 2 mm. Diseased mucous membrane exudes large quantities of sticky thick secretion that accumulates, dries and turns into a sticky honey-like crusts which act as a foreign body, leading to more choking and suffocation.
Laryngotracheobronchitis disease begins with dry chronic cough that resembles the barking of a dog. The voice is hoarse. Soon body temperature rises, difficulties in breathing, cyanosis, retraction of the epigastrium jugulum.then hypoxia and together with dehydration general intoxication occur with the cardiovascular system weakening.
Laryngotracheobronchitis is confirmed with laryngotracheoscopy, which reveals mucous membrane swelling and hyperemia of the larynx with thick yellowish-whitish secretion out bursting among vocal cords. The mucous membranes the trachea and bronchi are also swollen, red and covered with thick pus and brownish-yellowish crusts which are sticky. Lumens of the trachea and especially of bronchi are very narrow in particular.
High doses of broad-spectrum antibiotics and corticosteroids, proteolytic agents, a tent with wet oxygen rehydration are applied. Cardiotonics and analeptics are applied in the case of cardiovascular system weakening. Bronchial aspiration is very helpful, so if it needs to be done more often a tracheotomy is performed to remove crusts and secretion. Prior to the introduction of antibiotics and corticosteroids mortality was very high, up to 80%. Today, with this therapy electrolyte correction the mortality is reduced to 10-12%
Tracheitis acuta is a catarrhal inflammation of tracheal mucous membrane usually of viral etiology. Predisposing factors of tracheitis are inflammation of the nasal mucosa, sinuses and pharynx, fatigue and flu. Tracheitis acuta is characterized by a chronic cough that is often painful. At the beginning it is dry and then accompanied with coughing out slimy secretion and sometimes even there is pus in the secretion. Pain is present very often behind the sternum, which is intensified when coughing. Tracheal mucous membrane is bright red, covered with a mucous secretion.
Hot drinks are used in treatment; aspirin is applied to relieve coughing. Antibiotics are given Very often with elevated body temperature. It is useful to avoid the smoke, tobacco and dusty rooms.
Chronic tracheitis is a chronic catarrhal inflammation of tracheal mucous membrane characterized by hyperemia and hypertrophy of mucous membrane. The disease it is often associated with inflammation of mucous membrane both of rhinopharynx and bronchi, and it usually occurs after several times repeated acute inflammation of the upper and lower respiratory tract.
The main symptom is a persistent dry cough accompanied coughing up mucous secretions. The mucous membranes laminates and it creates layers of thick sticky secretion and dried crusts. Symptoms include dry cough, shortness of breath and hoarseness.
Treatment is implemented through surgical treatment of the nose followed by repairing a change in larynx and trachea. Climatic treatments on coast and aerosol therapy are very useful.