Etiopathogenesis of malignant tumors is not yet explained which implies that laryngeal cancers are still a mystery too. Prolonged exposure to environmental agents increases the risk of malignant tumors.
Risk factors are smoking, alcohol, air pollution, deficiency, early respiratory disease, and heritage. The greatest importance is given to smoking.
Laryngeal Cancer Symptoms
Supraglottic cancers spreads quickly locally and metastasizes early. The most common symptom is hoarseness. In addition there are also problems in breathing, difficulties when swallowing, sore throat and neck, feeling the presence of some kind of foreign bodyin the throat, cough, bloody sputum, bad breath, and enlarged lymph glands in the neck. Supraglottic carcinomas do not go with hoarseness, as early symptoms. In the beginning, they are characterized by slight symptoms. The first symptom which draws the attention is the pain that is aggravated by swallowing.
The most typical symptom of glottic carcinoma is the constant hoarseness of variable intensity, which develops to the agony (loss of voice). Hoarseness is the early symptom of glottic carcinoma. Disturbances of breathing, bloody sputum and cough are the symptoms of advanced illness.
Subglottic cancer symptoms are deceptive. The growth of laryngeal tumors causes shortness of breath as the first symptom, but in fact the illness has already advanced. Disturbances of breathing develop gradually with the spread of tumor formation and stenosis. At first they appear in an effort to breathe and later inspirational strider (wheezing) emerges, followed by cyanosis (blue). Over the time is patient is relatively well adapted to breathing through a narrow gap next to the cancer.
Laryngeal Cancer Diagnosis
The diagnosis is set through the clinical, endoskopic, radiological and histopathological examinations.
Laryngeal Cancer Treatment
Validated methods for the treatment of laryngeal cancer are surgery, radiotherapy or a combination of these two methods. Chemotherapy is adjuvant in some combinations, but never a primary therapy.
Therapeutic results are evaluated by five-year cancer survival. A patient who was five years after completion of treatment without clinically apparent tumor is considered to be cured. The natural evolution of untreated laryngeal cancer patients leads to the death usually one year after the onset of symptoms. Prognosis depends on several factors such as localization and dissemination, metastases, histological nature, immune status, early diagnosis, type of therapy.
Globally laryngeal cancer of all localizations have been successfully treated, particularly by surgical treatment, which is why early diagnosis is very important.